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飽和脂肪またはオメガ – 6脂肪酸を豊富に含む食事を摂取した犬と比較し、オメガ – 3 脂肪酸を補充した食事を摂取した犬は死亡率が低く、腎機能に優れ、腎病変および蛋白尿の発生も低く、コレステロール値も低かった。 オメガ – 3 脂肪酸食を摂取した犬では、実際に腎機能が改善された。
自然発生の慢性腎臓病罹患猫でオメガ – 3脂肪酸濃度が最も高い食事を摂取した猫が最も長く生存した。
Proceedings, The 15th Congress of FAVA 慢性腎臓病の栄養管理
カリフォルニア大学 Veterinary Medical Center – San Diego 腎臓/泌尿器/血液透析科コーディネータ
Cancer. 2000 Apr 15;88(8):1916-28.
Curr Pharm Des. 2009; 15(36): 4149–4156.
in vivoと In vitroの試験で、DPAn-6は抗炎症活性を持ち、加えてDHAの効果を高めることが判明。
Lipids. 2010 May;45(5):375-84. doi: 10.1007/s11745-010-3406-3. Epub 2010 Apr 4.
日本の国立がんセンターのグループが２０１５年にAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutritionで論文発表した内容です。
International Journal of Cancer 98(1):78-83 · April 2002 with 92 Reads
Nutrition and Cancer 36(1):33-41 · February 2000
J Vet Intern Med. 1999 Nov-Dec;13(6):574-80.
Int J Cancer. 2004 Apr 10;109(3):449-54.
Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Dogs and Cats
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
The optimum quantity of omega-3 PUFA supplementation and ratio of omega-3/omega-6 PUFA appropriate for renal diets have not been conclusively established. Although prospective clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of additional omeg-3 polyunsatuarted fatty acid supplementation in dogs and cats with naturally occurring disease have not yet been performed, dietary supplementation with omega-3 PUFA’s have been shown to be beneficial in dogs with induced CKD. Compared with dogs fed diets high in saturated fats or omega-6 PUFA, dogs consuming a diet
supplemented with omega-3 PUFA had lower mortality, better renal function, fewer renal lesions, less proteinuria, and lower cholesterol levels. In dogs fed the omega-3 PUFA diet, renal function actually increased and remained above baseline over 20 months of study. Lesions of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltrates were also reduced in dogs fed the diet supplemented with omega-3 PUFA’s. These benefits are thought to accrue, at least in part, by modification in prostanoid, thromboxane, and leukotriene production with anti- inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and antioxidant effects. Published data supporting the use of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cats is limited to a single retrospective study of cats with spontaneous CKD in which cats surviving the longest were receiving the diet with the highest omega-3 PUFA concentration.
Effect of fish oil, arginine, and doxorubicin chemotherapy on remission and survival time for dogs with lymphoma: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study.
Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids have been shown to inhibit the growth and metastasis of tumors. This double-blind, randomized study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids can improve metabolic parameters, decrease chemical indices of inflammation, enhance quality of life, and extend disease free interval and survival time for dogs treated for lymphoblastic lymphoma with doxorubicin chemotherapy.
Thirty-two dogs with lymphoma were randomized to receive one of two diets supplemented with menhaden fish oil and arginine (experimental diet) or an otherwise identical diet supplemented with soybean oil (control diet). Diets were fed before and after remission was attained with up to five dosages of doxorubicin. Parameters examined included blood concentrations of glucose, lactic acid, and insulin in response to glucose and diet tolerance tests; alpha-1 acid glycoprotein; tumor necrosis factor; interleukin-6; body weight; amino acid profiles; resting energy expenditure; disease free interval (DFI); survival time (ST); and clinical performance scores.
Dogs fed the experimental diet had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean serum levels of the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) compared with controls. Higher serum levels of C22:6 and C20:5 were associated with lesser (P < 0.05) plasma lactic acid responses to intravenous glucose and diet tolerance testing. Increasing C22:6 levels were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with longer DFI and ST for dogs with Stage III lymphoma fed the experimental diet.
Fatty acids of the n-3 series normalize elevated blood lactic acid in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in an increase in DFI and ST for dogs with lymphoma.
Omega-3 and Renal Function in Older Adults
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem and can result in end-stage renal disease with need for dialysis or transplantation. In Europe up to 12% of the adult population had some renal impairment, while in the United States the end stage of CKD has increased dramatically from 209.000 in 1991 to 472.000 in 2004. Diabetes and hypertension are major causes of kidney pathology. Infection, particularly ascending infection, is more common with increasing age, as both immune function declines and associated pathology predisposing to infection, such as obstructive uropathy, becomes more common. Most pathological changes in the kidney appear to be initiated by oxidative stress, followed by an inflammatory reaction. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between free radicals and their detoxification by endogenous and exogenous scavengers, including polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). Recent studies showed that PUFA supplementation slowed the rate of loss of renal function in patients with IgA nephropathy. Then, studies of omega-3 supplementation in dialysis patients describe salutary effects on triglyceride levels and dialysis access patency. We examined the relationship between total plasma PUFA levels and change in creatinine clearance over a three-year follow-up in the older persons enrolled in the InCHIANTI study, a population-based epidemiology study conducted in Tuscany, Italy. This study showed that older adults with low total plasma PUFA levels have a greater decline in creatinine clearance over three years of follow-up. These findings suggest that a higher dietary intake of PUFA may be protective against progression to chronic kidney disease.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) algal oils reduce inflammatory mediators in human peripheral mononuclear cells in vitro and paw edema in vivo.
The anti-inflammatory activity associated with fish oil has been ascribed to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of two DHA-rich algal oils, which contain little EPA, and determined the contribution of the constituent fatty acids, particularly DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In vitro, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was inhibited with apparent relative potencies of DPAn-6 (most potent) > DHA > EPA. In addition, DPAn-6 decreased intracellular levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and was a potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. DHA/DPAn-6-rich DHA-S (DHA-S) algal oil was more effective at reducing edema in rats than DHA-rich DHA-T (DHA-T), suggesting that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory properties. Further in vivo analyses demonstrated that feeding DPAn-6 alone, provided as an ethyl ester, reduced paw edema to an extent approaching that of indomethacin and enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of DHA when given in combination. Together, these results demonstrate that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory activity and enhances the effect of DHA in vitro and in vivo. Thus, DHA-S algal oil may have potential for use in anti-inflammatory applications.
Fish, n-3 PUFA consumption, and pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese: a large, population-based, prospective cohort study.
Most previous prospective studies in Western countries found no association between consumption of fish and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for which the main source is fish, and pancreatic cancer risk. However, prospective evidence is still lacking among populations who have a relatively higher fish consumption.
We investigated the association between fish and n-3 PUFA consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in a population-based, prospective study in Japanese men and women.
The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC study) has enrolled 140,420 subjects. We analyzed data on 82,024 eligible participants aged 45-74 y without a history of cancer who responded to a validated food-frequency questionnaire that included 138 items in 1995 for cohort I and in 1998 for cohort II. Participants were followed through 2010. HRs and corresponding 95% CIs for the highest compared with lowest quartile were calculated by using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models.
During 1,068,774 person-years of follow-up, 449 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancers were identified. After the exclusion of pancreatic cancer cases in the first 3 y of follow-up, we found an inverse association of marine n-3 PUFA (EPA+DPA+DHA) and DHA consumption with pancreatic cancer risk: compared with the lowest quartile, multivariate-adjusted HRs in the highest quartile were 0.70 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95; P-trend = 0.07) and 0.69 (0.51, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), respectively. Associations for total fish, n-3 PUFA, EPA, and DPA consumption were similar but were not significant.
High n-3 PUFA, especially marine n-3 PUFAs, and DHA consumption was associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer in a population with a large variation in fish consumption, although the data apply to only a portion of the JPHC study subjects.
N-3 and N-6 fatty acids in breast adipose tissue and relative risk of breast cancer in a case-control study in Tours, France
Experimental studies have indicated that n-3 fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit mammary tumor growth and metastasis. Earlier epidemiological studies have given inconclusive results about a potential protective effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on breast cancer risk, possibly because of methodological issues inherent to nutritional epidemiology. To evaluate the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect against breast cancer, we examined the fatty acid composition in adipose tissue from 241 patients with invasive, nonmetastatic breast carcinoma and from 88 patients with benign breast disease, in a case-control study in Tours, central France. Fatty acid composition in breast adipose tissue was used as a qualitative biomarker of past dietary intake of fatty acids. Biopsies of adipose tissue were obtained at the time of surgery. Individual fatty acids were measured as a percentage of total fatty acids, using capillary gas chromatography. Unconditional logistic regression modeling was used to obtain odds ratio estimates while adjusting for age, height, menopausal status and body mass index. We found inverse associations between breast cancer-risk and n-3 fatty acid levels in breast adipose tissue. Women in the highest tertile of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) had an odds ratio of 0.39 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.19-0.78) compared to women in the lowest tertile (trend p = 0.01). In a similar way, women in the highest tertile of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) had an odds ratio of 0.31 (95% CI = 0.13-0.75) compared to women in the lowest tertile (trend p = 0.016). Women in the highest tertile of the long-chain n-3/total n-6 ratio had an odds ratio of 0.33 (95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.66) compared to women in the lowest tertile (trend p = 0.0002). In conclusion, our data based on fatty acids levels in breast adipose tissue suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids on breast cancer risk and support the hypothesis that the balance between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids plays a role in breast cancer.
Effect of an alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet on rat mammary tumor growth depends on the dietary oxidative status.
Cognault S1, Jourdan ML, Germain E, Pitavy R, Morel E, Durand G, Bougnoux P, Lhuillery C.
Laboratoire de Nutrition et Sécurité Alimentaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
To investigate whether the oxidative status of an 18:3(n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet could modulate the growth of chemically induced rat mammary tumors, three independent experiments were performed. Experiments I and II examined the variation of tumor growth by addition of antioxidant (vitamin E) or a prooxidant system (sodium ascorbate/2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) to a 15% linseed oil diet rich in 18:3(n-3). Experiment III addressed the role of PUFA in the tumor growth modulation by vitamin E. For this purpose, we compared the effect of vitamin E in 15% fat diets containing a high level of 18:3(n-3) (linseed oil, high-PUFA diet) or devoid of 18:3(n-3) (hydrogenated palm/sunflower oil, low-PUFA diet). In Experiments I-III, tumor growth increased in the presence of vitamin E compared with control (without vitamin E). Furthermore, it decreased when prooxidant was added. In contrast, no difference was observed when the diet was low in PUFA, suggesting that sensitivity of PUFA to peroxidation may interfere with tumor growth. This observation was supported by growth kinetic parameter analysis, which indicated that tumor growth resulted from variations in cell loss but not from changes in cell proliferation. These data show that, in vivo, PUFA effects on tumor growth are highly dependent on diet oxidative status.
Platelet function in dogs treated for lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma and supplemented with dietary n-3 fatty acids.
A prospective randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed to test the hypothesis that dogs with malignancies that are supplemented with n-3 fatty acids do not have clinical or laboratory evidence of coagulation disorders or altered platelet function when compared with unsupplemented dogs with similar malignancies. Thirteen dogs with hemangiosarcoma and 66 dogs with lymphoma were evaluated. Coagulation status of the dogs with lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma was evaluated with prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, and in vitro platelet aggregometry using the whole-blood method. These tests were performed at 5 time points: before beginning the diet (week 0), at weeks 3, 15, and 21, and at 1 year or when progressive disease was evident. Alterations in platelet function in dogs receiving a diet supplemented with dietary n-3 fatty acids were not identified when compared to dogs fed a control diet. Dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation using this dosage and ratio in dogs with lymphoma or hemangiosarcoma did not induce clinically significant hemorrhage in these animals. Therefore, supplementation with n-3 fatty acids did not result in clinical or laboratory evidence relating to uncontrolled hemorrhage in these dogs.
Enhanced radiosensitivity of rat autochthonous mammary tumors by dietary docosahexaenoic acid
Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which integrates into tumor cell membranes, has been reported to enhance the efficacy against tumors of cytotoxic drugs that induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because ionizing radiation also generate ROS, we initiated a study to determine whether dietary DHA might sensitize mammary tumors to irradiation. Mammary tumors were induced by N‐methylnitrosourea (NMU) in Sprague‐Dawley rats. The optimal dose of radiation to examine the effect of DHA on tumor response to irradiation was determined to be 18 grays (Gy) using a 4–6 MeV electron beam (according to the depth of the target volume) delivered in a single fraction from a linear accelerator. Two groups of rats were fed a basal diet containing 7% of a mixture of peanut and rapeseed oils enriched with 8% of an oil containing either a low (palm oil) or high (DHASCO oil containing 40% DHA) DHA content. DHA group was equally subdivided into 2 groups without or with addition of vitamin E (100 IU/kg diet). Irradiation was carried out when the first tumor in each rat reached 1.5 cm2 and subsequent change in tumor size was documented over time. DHA level in adipose tissue, taken as a biomarker, was higher in the DHA supplemented group compared to the control group. Vitamin E level in liver, the best storage for this compound, was higher in the vitamin E supplemented DHA group compared to the DHA group. Tumor size decreased by 60% at 12 days after irradiation in the DHA group vs. 31% in the control group (p = 0.03) and 36% in the DHA plus vitamin E group. Therefore, dietary DHA sensitized mammary tumors to radiation. The addition of vitamin E inhibited the beneficial effect of DHA, suggesting that this effect might be mediated by oxidative damage to the peroxidizable lipids.